True Cellular Formulas Team - July 18, 2023

Unveiling the Hidden Dangers of Golf Courses

The Truth About the Chemicals on Your Golf Course

Unveiling the Hidden Dangers of Golf Courses

A house overlooking a golf course has long been a symbol of luxurious suburban living. However, behind the picturesque greens and manicured fairways lies a hidden danger that often goes unnoticed: the toxic chemicals used to maintain these pristine landscapes. This blog aims to shed light on the toxic nature of golf courses, providing valuable insights into the potential health risks they pose to residents and the environment. By delving into the harmful effects of common pesticides and herbicides, we hope to inform the average person about the true cost of living near a golf course.

The Hazards of Golf Course Maintenance

While broken windows caused by errant golf shots are a well-known downside of living near a golf course, a more significant concern emerged in the 1990s. Two studies, known as "Toxic Fairways," conducted by the New York attorney general's office, revealed that golf course superintendents exposed to high levels of chemicals were at an increased risk of specific cancers.[1] This raised concerns about pesticide drift, which could potentially affect nearby residents, particularly children who are more vulnerable to chemical toxicity due to their developing bodies and brains.

Research has extensively linked chemical exposure to agricultural sites with carcinogenic, endocrine, and reproductive effects.[2-3] Shockingly, the studies conducted in the "Toxic Fairways" report estimated that golf courses applied approximately 50,000 pounds of pesticides in a year, significantly surpassing the average amount used in agriculture.[1] This excessive use not only contributes to chemical leaching into the ground and surface water but also fosters pest and weed tolerance, necessitating even greater chemical applications.

Understanding the Chemicals

To maintain the perfect appearance of golf courses, pesticides, herbicides, and insecticides are commonly employed. One such chemical, 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid), used in combination with 2,4,5-T to create the infamous Agent Orange, is still in use today.[4] While it induces a cancer-like process in plants, studies on the effects of 2,4-D on humans have yielded conflicting results. Some claim that it does not pose significant endocrine-related toxicity or functional decrements.[5] However, these studies may be influenced by potential conflicts of interest, as employees of chemical companies were involved in their publication.

Another chemical, chlorpyrifos, an organophosphate insecticide extensively used on golf courses, has been found to overstimulate the nervous system at high doses, causing adverse health effects.[6] Despite the Obama administration's zero tolerance policy for chlorpyrifos on food, the EPA under different leadership has reversed this decision, only implementing buffer zones around certain areas. Unfortunately, these buffer zones are often insufficient to protect residents, as studies have found traces of chlorpyrifos in household dust even at distances farther than the buffer zones.[7]

Glyphosate, the main ingredient in Roundup, a widely used herbicide, has also come under scrutiny. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified glyphosate as "probably carcinogenic," linking it to cancer development and DNA damage.[8] Lawsuits have been filed against Monsanto, the company that discovered glyphosate, highlighting its potential carcinogenic effects.[9]

The Risk to Vulnerable Populations

Chemical exposure from golf courses affects everyone, but certain groups, such as pregnant women and their children, are particularly vulnerable. Studies have shown a correlation between 2,4-D exposure and reduced semen fertility in males, as well as significant reductions in live births among pregnant mice exposed to a 2,4-D-based herbicide.[10-11] Chlorpyrifos exposure during pregnancy has been associated with delays in psychomotor and mental development in children.[12] Organophosphates, including chlorpyrifos, have also been linked to lower fertility, spontaneous abortion, stillbirths, and developmental defects in females.[12] Glyphosate has shown endocrine-disruptive potential and can impair normal fetal development.[13]

Routes of Exposure

One of the primary ways people are exposed to these toxic chemicals is through pesticide drift, where particles and vapors become airborne and land on non-target surfaces. Household dust has been found to contain pesticides, even at considerable distances from the application site, leading to chronic low-dose exposure.[14] Additionally, golfers can inadvertently bring pesticide residues into their homes on their clothing and skin, which can be absorbed by their bodies or transferred to household surfaces.[15]

Promoting Good Practices

Despite the alarming risks associated with golf course chemicals, some golf clubs are embracing organic practices. The Vineyard Golf Club in Edgartown, Massachusetts, stands as a prime example, maintaining its 18 holes without synthetic pesticides, herbicides, or fertilizers.[16] By implementing sustainable methods and minimizing chemical use, golf courses can protect the health of their members and surrounding communities.

Reducing Exposure

As individuals living near golf courses, there are steps we can take to minimize our exposure to harmful chemicals. One effective strategy is to create a buffer zone between residential areas and golf course boundaries. This buffer zone can help reduce pesticide drift and mitigate the risks associated with chemical exposure.[17] Additionally, being mindful of wind conditions and avoiding outdoor activities during and after pesticide applications can further reduce exposure. It is also crucial to wash fruits and vegetables thoroughly, as well as regularly clean household surfaces to remove any potential pesticide residues.

Education and Awareness

Raising awareness about the potential dangers of golf course chemicals is vital in promoting change. Educating golf course managers, superintendents, and staff about the risks associated with certain pesticides and herbicides can encourage the adoption of safer alternatives and more sustainable practices. By fostering a culture of awareness and responsibility within the golfing community, we can drive the shift towards environmentally friendly practices.

Transitioning to Organic Practices

One promising solution to reduce the harmful effects of golf course maintenance is the adoption of organic practices. Organic golf course management emphasizes natural and sustainable approaches, relying on cultural practices, such as proper soil management, biodiversity enhancement, and integrated pest management (IPM) techniques.[18] By minimizing chemical inputs and maximizing ecological balance, organic practices can provide a healthier and more sustainable alternative to conventional golf course management.

Regulations and Policies

While individual efforts are crucial, comprehensive regulations and policies are necessary to protect the health of communities near golf courses. Government bodies, such as environmental protection agencies, should establish stricter regulations on the types and amounts of chemicals used on golf courses. This includes thorough evaluation of pesticide formulations and their potential long-term effects on human health and the environment. Implementing mandatory reporting and monitoring systems for pesticide usage can ensure transparency and accountability within the golf course industry.

Encouraging Research and Innovation

Further research is needed to better understand the long-term effects of golf course chemicals on human health and the environment. This includes studying the cumulative impacts of multiple chemical exposures, evaluating the effectiveness of alternative pest management strategies, and identifying safer and more sustainable products. Encouraging innovation in the field of golf course maintenance can lead to the development of effective, non-toxic, and environmentally friendly alternatives.

Community Engagement and Activism

Communities living near golf courses can come together to advocate for safer practices and demand stricter regulations. Local activism, such as organizing informational sessions, engaging with local authorities, and partnering with environmental organizations, can amplify the collective voice and drive positive change. By fostering a sense of community and mobilizing for a common cause, residents can influence decision-makers and promote the adoption of safer practices in golf course maintenance.


Living near a golf course should not come at the cost of our health or the health of the environment. It is crucial to recognize the hidden dangers associated with golf course chemicals and take proactive steps to mitigate these risks. By reducing exposure, promoting education and awareness, transitioning to organic practices, implementing stricter regulations, encouraging research and innovation, and engaging in community activism, we can create a safer and healthier future for golfers, residents, and the ecosystems surrounding golf courses. Together, we can unveil the toxic truth and pave the way for sustainable golf course management practices.

  1. Office of the Attorney General. "Toxic Fairways: Risking Groundwater Contamination From Pesticides on Long Island Golf Courses." December, 1995. Beyond Pesticides,
  2. Semchuk, K M et al. “Parkinson's disease and exposure to agricultural work and pesticide chemicals.” Neurology vol. 42,7 (1992): 1328-35. doi:10.1212/wnl.42.7.1328
  3. Wesseling, C et al. “Agricultural pesticide use in developing countries: health effects and research needs.” International journal of health services : planning, administration, evaluation vol. 27,2 (1997): 273-308. doi:10.2190/E259-N3AH-TA1Y-H591
  4. Sigma-Aldrich. "2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid." Sigma-Aldrich,
  5. Environmental Protection Agency. "2,4-D." Ingredients Used in Pesticide Products, EPA,
  6. Kamel, Freya, and Jane A Hoppin. “Association of pesticide exposure with neurologic dysfunction and disease.” Environmental health perspectives vol. 112,9 (2004): 950-8. doi:10.1289/ehp.7135
  7. Parker, Jonathan, et al. "Will Buffer Zones around Schools in Agricultural Areas Be Adequate to Protect Children from the Potential Adverse Effects of Pesticide Exposure?" PLOS Biology, vol. 15, no. 12, 2017, doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.2004741.
  8. Anifandis, George et al. “The In Vitro Impact of the Herbicide Roundup on Human Sperm Motility and Sperm Mitochondria.” Toxics vol. 6,1 2. 21 Dec. 2017, doi:10.3390/toxics6010002
  9. CBS News. "Popular weed killer faces lawsuit over cancer claims." CBS News, 29 June, 2016,
  10. Environmental Protection Agency. "DDT: A Brief History and Status." EPA,
  11. Giulioni, Carlo et al. “The environmental and occupational influence of pesticides on male fertility: A systematic review of human studies.” Andrology vol. 10,7 (2022): 1250-1271. doi:10.1111/andr.13228
  12. "Chlorpyrifos." US Right to Know,
  13. de Araújo-Ramos, Anderson Tadeu et al. “Controversies on Endocrine and Reproductive Effects of Glyphosate and Glyphosate-Based Herbicides: A Mini-Review.” Frontiers in endocrinology vol. 12 627210. 15 Mar. 2021, doi:10.3389/fendo.2021.627210
  14. Deziel, N. C., Freeman, L. B., Graubard, B. I., Jones, R. R., Hoppin, J. A., Thomas, K., & … Friesen, M. C. (2017). Relative Contributions of Agricultural Drift, Para-Occupational, and Residential Use Exposure Pathways to House Dust Pesticide Concentrations: Meta- Regression of Published Data. Environmental Health Perspectives, 125(3), 296–305. doi: 10.1289/EHP426
  15. Bernard, C E et al. “Environmental residues and biomonitoring estimates of human insecticide exposure from treated residential turf.” Archives of environmental contamination and toxicology vol. 41,2 (2001): 237-40. doi:10.1007/s002440010243
  16. Vineyard Golf Club. "Vineyard Golf — Golf Course." Vineyard Golf Club, 2017,
  17. Umbra, “How can I protect myself from a pesticide-spraying neighbor?” Grist. 18 July, 2016.
  18. Cornell University. "Integrated Pest Management." New York State Golf Course Best Management Practices,

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