True Cellular Formulas Team - January 30, 2024

The Invisible Threat in Your Bottled Water



In recent years, public awareness and concern over the presence of microplastics in bottled water have surged. These tiny plastic fragments, often invisible to the naked eye, have been a topic of environmental and health discussions worldwide. But just when we thought we understood the extent of plastic contamination in our water, a new, even more, insidious threat emerges: Nanoplastics.

Nanoplastics are minuscule particles, so small that they can effortlessly penetrate cellular membranes and even cross the formidable blood-brain barrier.[1] This ability potentially makes them more hazardous than their slightly larger counterparts, the microplastics. The revelation that these ultra-fine particles exist in our bottled water is not just alarming but poses critical questions about their long-term impact on health and the environment.

What makes the presence of nanoplastics particularly troubling is their unexpected source. Contrary to what one might assume, these contaminants are not predominantly leaching from the plastic bottles themselves. Instead, they seem to be originating from a source designed to ensure water purity: commercial reverse osmosis (RO) filters.[1] These advanced filtration systems, intended to strip water of harmful substances, might ironically be contributing a new form of pollutant.

As we delve into this perplexing and concerning issue, it's essential to understand not just where these nanoplastics are coming from, but also the potential risks they carry and what this means for consumers and the industry alike.

The Surprising Source of Nanoplastics

The discovery that the principal source of nanoplastics in our drinking water is likely not the bottles themselves but the commercial reverse osmosis (RO) filters marks a significant twist in our understanding of water contamination. Reverse osmosis, a process revered for its ability to purify water by removing a wide range of pollutants, including harmful chemicals and microorganisms, is now under scrutiny for potentially introducing nanoplastics.[1]

So, how do these minuscule particles end up in the water? The answer lies in the RO filtration process. These filters are designed with incredibly fine membranes to catch and remove contaminants. However, the wear and tear of these membranes could be releasing nanoplastics into the water they are supposed to purify. This unintentional byproduct of the filtration process is a stark reminder of the complexities involved in ensuring water purity.

The concern is not limited to bottled water alone. Many households and businesses rely on in-home or commercial RO units for their daily water needs. While the study linking RO filters to nanoplastic contamination emphasizes correlation rather than causation, it raises an important flag. It suggests that in our quest to rid water of known contaminants, we might inadvertently be introducing new ones, the impacts of which are not yet fully understood.

The manufacturers of these RO membrane filters are likely to respond to these findings, potentially leading to innovations and improvements in filtration technology. However, until these advancements materialize, consumers are left to ponder the safety of their supposedly purified water.

Understanding the Risks

The potential health risks associated with nanoplastics are a growing concern. Unlike microplastics, their tiny size allows them to infiltrate biological systems more easily, raising alarm about their possible effects on human health.[1,2] Research to date has indicated that nanoplastics could pose various health risks, including developmental and reproductive problems.[2] However, the full extent of their impact remains largely unknown.

One of the most pressing questions is how these particles interact with our bodily systems once ingested. Their ability to cross cellular barriers means they could potentially disrupt biological processes at the microscopic level. There is also concern about their accumulation over time and the potential for chronic health issues.[1,2]

Despite these worries, the scientific community cautions that more research is needed to definitively understand the health implications of nanoplastics. Current studies are focused on determining the levels of toxicity and the mechanisms by which these particles could cause harm. This research is vital for developing safety guidelines and regulations for water purity.

The Study's Findings

Recent research has shed light on the prevalence of nanoplastics in bottled water.[1] Utilizing advanced microscopy with dual lasers, scientists for the first time were able to detect and categorize these tiny particles. The findings were staggering: the average liter of bottled water contains nearly a quarter million nanoplastics.[1]

These particles are less than a micron in size, dwarfing when compared to a human hair, which is about 83 microns wide. The study found that there are 10 to 100 times more nanoplastics than microplastics in bottled water. This discovery indicates that our exposure to these tiny pollutants might be significantly higher than previously estimated.

The research also revealed variability in nanoplastic concentrations across different water brands, with some containing as many as 400,000 particles per liter.[1] This variability underscores the complexity of the issue and the need for a broader examination across more brands and sources.

As we grapple with these unsettling findings, it's important to remember that the science on nanoplastics is still evolving. As researchers continue to unravel the mysteries of these tiny particles, it's crucial for both consumers and industry leaders to stay informed and proactive in addressing this emerging environmental and health challenge.

The Response and Future Directions

The revelation of nanoplastics in bottled water poses a significant challenge for both manufacturers and regulatory bodies. As the scientific community continues to investigate, we can anticipate a response from the manufacturers of RO membrane filters and bottled water companies. This response could include revising manufacturing processes, enhancing filtration technologies, and conducting more comprehensive testing to ensure water safety.

Furthermore, this issue highlights the need for stringent industry standards and regulations specifically targeting nanoplastic contamination. Policymakers and regulatory agencies may need to step in to establish new guidelines to protect public health. It's also likely that this research will spur further studies, not just in the field of water purification, but in understanding the broader environmental impact of nanoplastics.


The discovery of nanoplastics in bottled water opens up a new chapter in our ongoing struggle to ensure environmental sustainability and public health safety. While it's crucial not to jump to conclusions about the health risks of these particles, it's equally important to remain vigilant and informed. Consumers should not hastily discard their RO systems, but should stay updated on the latest research and recommendations.

As we navigate this complex issue, one thing is clear: the journey to clean and safe drinking water is fraught with unforeseen challenges. This latest discovery underscores the importance of continuous scientific inquiry and innovation in our pursuit of a healthier planet.

  1. Naixin , Qian. “Rapid Single-Particle Chemical Imaging of Nanoplastics by SRS Microscopy.” PNAs, 
  2. Lai, Hanpeng et al. “Nanoplastics and Human Health: Hazard Identification and Biointerface.” Nanomaterials (Basel, Switzerland) vol. 12,8 1298. 11 Apr. 2022, doi:10.3390/nano12081298