True Cellular Formulas Team - June 2, 2023

The Hidden Perils of AstroTurf

Understanding Its Toxic Side

The Hidden Perils of AstroTurf

AstroTurf has been hailed as a godsend for those yearning for an evergreen lawn without the tiresome maintenance. It has evolved from its humble beginnings on sports fields to dominate home gardens, playgrounds, and even commercial landscapes. With its perennially vibrant color and low upkeep, it's no surprise that AstroTurf has garnered such an extensive fanbase. 

However, beneath the green veneer lies a potent threat that many remain oblivious to - toxicity.

While AstroTurf is celebrated for its convenience and durability, it is also crucial to discern the potential health and environmental risks associated with this synthetic green wonder. This article aims to shed light on the unseen hazards that AstroTurf presents, allowing individuals and communities to make more informed decisions about their landscape choices. As we delve into the heart of this issue, we unravel the need for safer alternatives and increased public awareness about the implications of the synthetic turf we so often take for granted.

What is AstroTurf?

AstroTurf, often also referred to as artificial turf, is a synthetic alternative to natural grass. First introduced in the mid-20th century, it was primarily used in sports arenas that needed a durable, weather-resistant playing surface.[1] Composed of synthetic fibers designed to mimic the feel and look of natural grass, AstroTurf has evolved significantly over the years, improving in both aesthetics and utility.

The typical AstroTurf consists of three primary components: the backing material that provides structure, the synthetic grass blades, and the infill, often composed of sand and recycled rubber, which gives the turf its cushioning effect. The convenience of AstroTurf lies in its low-maintenance nature - no watering, mowing, or fertilizing required - and its capacity to remain green throughout the year.

AstroTurf's rise in popularity can be credited to these practical advantages. However, understanding the potential toxic threats associated with AstroTurf requires a closer look at its constituents and their impacts on our health and environment.

The Toxicity of AstroTurf Materials

The potential toxicity of AstroTurf is largely linked to its construction materials. Let's break this down by examining each component.

The backing material is usually made of polyester tire cord and can contain a host of potentially hazardous chemicals like polyvinyl chloride (PVC). PVC manufacturing involves phthalates, some of which have been linked to endocrine disruption and other health issues.[2]

The grass blades, composed of polyethylene or nylon, are typically treated with UV inhibitors, color stabilizers, and flame retardants. These additives can potentially leach out into the environment over time, causing soil and water contamination.[3]

Perhaps the most controversial element is the infill, often made from crumb rubber derived from recycled tires. This crumb rubber is known to contain harmful chemicals such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and heavy metals like lead and zinc.[4] These substances have been associated with a variety of health risks, from skin and eye irritation to more serious conditions such as cancer.[5]

While direct causal relationships are still under scientific scrutiny, the presence of these toxic elements in AstroTurf is indisputable, making it essential to consider the possible health implications.

Environmental Impacts of AstroTurf

AstroTurf's environmental impact extends far beyond its immediate location. To fully understand these implications, we must look at the entire life cycle of the product, from production to disposal.

Firstly, the production of AstroTurf involves energy-intensive processes and the use of non-renewable resources, primarily petroleum products.[6] Moreover, the manufacturing process releases various greenhouse gases, contributing to climate change.[7]

Next, the disposal of AstroTurf presents significant environmental challenges. Despite some recycling efforts, a majority of AstroTurf ends up in landfills, where it takes hundreds, if not thousands, of years to degrade. During this time, the harmful chemicals within AstroTurf can potentially leach into the surrounding environment, posing risks to soil and groundwater quality.[8]

Furthermore, AstroTurf significantly contributes to the urban heat island effect, where urban regions experience higher temperatures than their rural surroundings.[9] Due to its synthetic nature, AstroTurf absorbs and retains heat, raising the local temperature. This heat retention can exacerbate heat-related illnesses and increase cooling costs.

Lastly, while AstroTurf may appear to be a water-friendly alternative in areas prone to drought, it's not without its complications. Rainfall cannot permeate through AstroTurf, leading to water runoff. This runoff water, contaminated by the chemicals in the turf, poses a risk to local waterways and aquatic life.

The overall ecological footprint of AstroTurf is substantial, which necessitates a deeper exploration of its environmental repercussions.

Public Health Concerns

Despite the convenience and aesthetic appeal of AstroTurf, growing evidence suggests that it might pose significant public health concerns. Most notably, children and athletes who frequently play on AstroTurf are at risk due to their close and prolonged contact with the surface.[10]

In particular, the crumb rubber infill has become a point of contention. As players run, slide, or fall on the turf, the rubber crumbs can become airborne or adhere to skin and clothing, leading to ingestion or inhalation. These tiny particles contain a cocktail of chemicals, including known carcinogens.[4]

Several studies and anecdotal reports have suggested a possible link between exposure to crumb rubber and an increased risk of cancer, particularly lymphoma and leukemia.[11] Additionally, other health concerns related to AstroTurf include heat stress from high surface temperatures, skin abrasions, and allergic reactions.[10] While these risks are less severe than potential carcinogenic exposure, they further underscore the need for caution when using AstroTurf.

In light of these concerns, it's essential to consider safer alternatives and measures to mitigate these risks, especially in settings where children and athletes are regularly exposed.

Safer Alternatives to AstroTurf

Given the mounting concerns about the toxicity of AstroTurf, it's prudent to explore safer alternatives. Here are a few options that can provide similar benefits without the same level of environmental and health risks:

  1. Natural Grass: The most environmentally friendly alternative is simply to use natural grass. While it requires more maintenance and doesn't offer the same durability as AstroTurf, natural grass provides significant environmental benefits, such as carbon sequestration, temperature regulation, and support for local biodiversity.
  2. Organic Infill: Another option is to use AstroTurf with organic or plant-based infill, such as coconut fiber or cork, instead of crumb rubber. This can reduce exposure to the harmful chemicals often found in crumb rubber, although the synthetic grass blades and backing may still present some concerns.
  3. Hybrid Grass Systems: Hybrid systems, which combine natural grass with synthetic fibers, offer a balance between durability and natural benefits. These systems can withstand more use than pure natural grass, and they don't require infill, reducing potential chemical exposure.

While these alternatives have their own limitations and may not be suitable for all applications, they represent steps toward a healthier and more sustainable approach to landscaping and sports fields. It's important to consider these options and their implications in terms of cost, maintenance, and environmental impact.

Steps for Mitigating Risks

If AstroTurf is the only feasible option for your needs, there are a few measures you can take to reduce potential risks:

  1. Regular Cleaning: Regularly clean the turf surface to reduce dust and chemical residue, and thus, minimize exposure.
  2. Watering: Spraying water on the turf can help lower its temperature and prevent rubber particles from becoming airborne.
  3. Proper Hygiene: After using AstroTurf, ensure that you, your children, or athletes shower and change clothing to minimize ingestion or inhalation of any rubber crumbs or dust.

Though these steps won't eliminate all risks, they can reduce the level of exposure to potentially harmful elements in AstroTurf.


AstroTurf, despite its many conveniences, carries hidden perils that we must acknowledge. From its composition of potentially toxic elements to its adverse environmental impacts, AstroTurf presents risks that need to be carefully considered before installation.

As we move forward, the exploration of safer alternatives and increased public awareness becomes vital. Making informed decisions about our landscaping choices can help us protect our health and the environment. It's crucial to advocate for further research in this domain to uncover more concrete evidence regarding AstroTurf's potential hazards and to develop safer, more sustainable solutions.

Ultimately, the key lies in balancing our desire for convenience and aesthetic appeal with our responsibility to safeguard our health and the planet we call home.

  1.  “The History of Astroturf Corporation.” AstroTurf,
  2. Wang, Yufei, and Haifeng Qian. “Phthalates and Their Impacts on Human Health.” Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland) vol. 9,5 603. 18 May. 2021, doi:10.3390/healthcare9050603
  3. Campanale, Claudia et al. “A Detailed Review Study on Potential Effects of Microplastics and Additives of Concern on Human Health.” International journal of environmental research and public health vol. 17,4 1212. 13 Feb. 2020, doi:10.3390/ijerph17041212
  4. Celeiro, Maria, et al. “Evaluation of Chemicals of Environmental Concern in Crumb Rubber and Water Leachates from Several Types of Synthetic Turf Football Pitches.” Chemosphere, vol. 270, 2021, p. 128610, doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.128610.
  5. Ogbodo, John Onyebuchi et al. “Volatile organic compounds: A proinflammatory activator in autoimmune diseases.” Frontiers in immunology vol. 13 928379. 29 Jul. 2022, doi:10.3389/fimmu.2022.928379
  6. “Nonrenewable Resources.” National Geographic,
  7. “Sources of Greenhouse Gas Emissions.” EPA, Environmental Protection Agency,
  8. Cheng, Hefa, et al. “Environmental and Health Impacts of Artificial Turf: A Review.” Environmental Science & Technology, vol. 48, no. 4, 2014, pp. 2114–2129, doi:10.1021/es4044193.
  9. “Artificial Turf.” City of Peoria,
  10. “Children and Athletes at Play on Toxic Turf and Playgrounds.” National Center for Health Research, 23 Mar. 2022,
  11. Bleyer, Archie. “Synthetic Turf Fields, Crumb Rubber, and Alleged Cancer Risk.” Sports medicine (Auckland, N.Z.) vol. 47,12 (2017): 2437-2441. doi:10.1007/s40279-017-0735-x

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