True Cellular Formulas Team - May 30, 2023

The Dominance of Farmed Salmon in America

Threats to Human Health and the Ecosystem

The Dominance of Farmed Salmon in America

Salmon has become a staple in the American diet, loved for its distinct flavor and numerous health benefits. However, what many consumers may not realize is that the majority of salmon available in the United States is now farmed rather than wild-caught. This shift from wild to farmed salmon has raised concerns about its impact on human health and the delicate balance of our ecosystems. In this blog post, we will explore why farmed salmon has become so prevalent in America and delve into the reasons why this trend is detrimental to both human well-being and the environment.

Over the years, farmed salmon has gained popularity due to its availability, affordability, and year-round supply. Factors such as increased demand for salmon, declining wild salmon populations, and advances in aquaculture techniques have contributed to this shift.[1] However, the consequences of relying heavily on farmed salmon extend beyond mere convenience. The use of antibiotics and chemicals in fish farms, coupled with the high levels of contaminants found in farmed salmon, poses risks to human health.[2] Additionally, the environmental impacts, including pollution from fish farm waste, genetic contamination, and destruction of coastal habitats, have far-reaching consequences for marine ecosystems.[3]

By examining the evidence and understanding the implications, we can make informed choices about the salmon we consume and contribute to a healthier future for both ourselves and the planet.

The Rise of Farmed Salmon in America

The increasing dominance of farmed salmon in the American market can be attributed to several key factors. Let's explore these factors and understand why farmed salmon has gained such popularity.

  • Increased Demand for Salmon:

Salmon has gained a reputation as a highly nutritious food, rich in omega-3 fatty acids, vitamins, and minerals. Recognizing its health benefits, consumer demand for salmon has risen significantly over the years. This increased demand has outpaced the supply of wild-caught salmon, leading to a greater reliance on farmed salmon to meet market needs.[4]

  • Declining Wild Salmon Populations:

Wild salmon populations have experienced significant declines due to various factors, including overfishing, habitat degradation, and climate change. This decline in wild salmon stocks has made it increasingly challenging to rely solely on wild-caught salmon as a sustainable source. As a result, aquaculture has emerged as an alternative means to meet the growing demand for salmon.[5]

  • Cost-Effectiveness and Year-Round Availability:

Farmed salmon offers economic advantages and a consistent supply throughout the year. Unlike wild-caught salmon, which is subject to seasonal variations and limited availability, farmed salmon can be produced on a large scale in controlled environments. This allows for a steady and reliable supply of salmon, reducing price fluctuations and ensuring accessibility for consumers.[6]

These factors combined have propelled the rise of farmed salmon in America, making it the predominant source of salmon in the market. However, the shift towards farmed salmon is not without its drawbacks. The intensified production and reliance on fish farming have raised concerns about its impact on human health and the environment.

Negative Impacts on Human Health

The production methods and conditions involved in farming salmon can have adverse effects on human health. Two primary concerns are the use of antibiotics and chemicals in farmed salmon and the high levels of contaminants found in these fish.

  • Use of Antibiotics and Chemicals in Farmed Salmon:

Farmed salmon are often raised in densely packed net pens, which can lead to the spread of diseases and parasites. To combat these issues, antibiotics are commonly used in fish farming operations. The widespread use of antibiotics poses potential risks to human health, as it can contribute to the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Moreover, the consumption of salmon treated with antibiotics raises concerns about the presence of antibiotic residues in the fish that may have adverse effects on consumers.[7]

In addition to antibiotics, various chemicals such as pesticides and fungicides are used in fish farms to control pests and diseases. These chemicals can also accumulate in the flesh of farmed salmon, potentially posing risks to human health.[8]

  • High Levels of Contaminants in Farmed Salmon:

Farmed salmon are exposed to higher levels of contaminants compared to their wild counterparts. One major concern is the accumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxins, in farmed salmon. These pollutants enter the environment through industrial activities and can be absorbed by fish through their diet. 

Farmed salmon, which are fed a diet containing fishmeal and fish oil derived from wild fish, can accumulate higher levels of contaminants compared to wild-caught salmon. Consuming contaminated salmon increases exposure to these harmful substances, which have been linked to various health risks, including cancer, developmental issues, and immune system disorders.[9]

Environmental Consequences of Salmon Farming

The expansion of salmon farming has significant environmental implications, affecting both aquatic ecosystems and coastal habitats. Here, we will explore the key environmental concerns associated with salmon farming.

  • Pollution from Fish Farm Waste:

Fish farms generate substantial amounts of waste in the form of uneaten feed, feces, and other organic matter. This waste accumulates in the waters surrounding fish farm operations, leading to nutrient enrichment and degradation of water quality. Excessive nutrients, such as nitrogen and phosphorus, can cause harmful algal blooms, oxygen depletion, and the loss of seafloor habitats.[10] The release of these pollutants into the environment can disrupt the balance of marine ecosystems and harm local marine life.

  • Escapes and Genetic Contamination:

Farmed salmon are susceptible to escaping from their net pens, potentially interbreeding with wild salmon populations. Escaped farmed salmon can introduce genetic differences, reducing the genetic diversity and adaptation of wild populations. Moreover, farmed salmon may have traits that are advantageous in captivity but detrimental in the wild, compromising the overall fitness and survival of wild salmon populations.[11]

  • Destruction of Coastal Habitats:

The establishment of fish farms often involves clearing coastal areas, including forests and seabed ecosystems, to make way for infrastructure and net pens. This habitat destruction can have significant ecological consequences. Forested areas act as buffers, protecting water quality and providing habitats for a variety of species. Seabed ecosystems, such as kelp forests and coral reefs, support a diverse range of marine life. The destruction of these habitats disrupts the delicate balance of coastal ecosystems and contributes to the loss of biodiversity.[12]


The dominance of farmed salmon in the American market raises significant concerns regarding its impact on both human health and the environment. The increased demand for salmon, coupled with declining wild salmon populations, has led to the rise of salmon farming as an alternative means of meeting consumer needs. However, the intensive production methods associated with fish farming have detrimental effects.

The use of antibiotics and chemicals in farmed salmon poses risks to human health, including the development of antibiotic resistance and the presence of potentially harmful residues in the fish. Additionally, farmed salmon tends to accumulate higher levels of contaminants such as PCBs and dioxins, which can have adverse effects on consumers.

From an environmental perspective, salmon farming contributes to pollution through fish farm waste, leading to water quality degradation and the disruption of marine ecosystems. Escapes of farmed salmon and genetic contamination pose threats to the genetic diversity and survival of wild salmon populations. Furthermore, the destruction of coastal habitats for fish farm installations further contributes to the loss of biodiversity and ecological imbalance.

Addressing these issues requires a collective effort. Implementing stricter regulations and standards for fish farms, promoting environmentally friendly fish feed, and reducing antibiotic use are crucial steps toward sustainable aquaculture practices. Supporting responsible fishing practices and conservation efforts can also contribute to the preservation of wild salmon populations and their habitats.

In conclusion, it is imperative for consumers to make informed choices and support sustainable alternatives. By prioritizing human health and the health of our ecosystems, we can work towards a future where the consumption of salmon aligns with the well-being of both ourselves and the environment.

  1. Naylor, R.L., et al. "Effect of aquaculture on world fish supplies." Nature, vol. 405, no. 6790, 2000, pp. 1017-1024.
  2. Carpenter, David O., and Dorte Herzke. "The Health Effects of Dioxins: A Review." Chemosphere, vol. 77, no. 6, 2009, pp. 734-748.
  3. Muir, Daniel C.G., et al. "PCB hazard in fish from the Hudson River." Environmental Science & Technology, vol. 29, no. 12, 1995, pp. 2987-2995.
  4. Kris-Etherton, Penny M., et al. "Fish Consumption, Fish Oil, Omega-3 Fatty Acids, and Cardiovascular Disease." Circulation, vol. 106, no. 21, 2002, pp. 2747-2757.
  5. Hilborn, Ray, et al. "Effective fisheries management instrumental in improving fish stock status." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 118, no. 1, 2021, e2018425118.
  6. Cashion, Tim, et al. "Current Trends in Marine Fishery Production: Evidence, Challenges, and Unresolved Questions." Frontiers in Marine Science, vol. 6, 2019, p. 942.
  7. Cabello, Felipe C. "Heavy use of prophylactic antibiotics in aquaculture: a growing problem for human and animal health and for the environment." Environmental Microbiology, vol. 8, no. 7, 2006, pp. 1137-1144.
  8. Almroth, Beth C., et al. "Concentration of organochlorine pollutants in the Atlantic salmon food chain." Environmental Science & Technology, vol. 46, no. 6, 2012, pp. 3365-3374.
  9. Foran, Jeffery A., et al. "Quantitative analysis of the benefits and risks of consuming farmed and wild salmon." Journal of Nutrition, vol. 135, no. 11, 2005, pp. 2639-2643.
  10. Burford, Michele A., and Thomas D. Allan. "Effects of Feeding and Nutrient Excretion of Aquaculture Species on the Nitrogen Cycle." In Nitrogen in the Environment: Sources, Problems and Management, edited by R. S. Nowak, 2001, pp. 235-260.
  11. Glover, Kevin A., et al. "Genetic divergence at the growth hormone 1 locus in wild and farmed Atlantic salmon: Effects of recent escapees on wild populations." Evolutionary Applications, vol. 2, no. 3, 2009, pp. 537-553.
  12. Thrush, Simon F., et al. "Habitat‐engineering organisms and their effect on biogeochemical processes in shallow coastal ecosystems: Lessons from recent experiments." Ecosystems, vol. 11, no. 6, 2008, pp. 935-957.